The very best alarm clocks of 2022

An alarm clock could seem outdated, along with your smartphone’s infinite variety of tones and apps to wake you up. However utilizing your cellphone as your alarm can tempt you to make use of it earlier than you tuck in, and that may result in lower-quality sleep. Let’s be sincere: Don’t you depend on your cellphone for sufficient already? So in case you’re searching for deep sleep, rid your self of the tech temptation, put a ways between your mattress and your display screen, put an alarm clock in your nightstand and nonetheless get up on time.

That will help you substitute your cellphone’s alarm, we put 18 top-rated alarm clocks to the check — from analog tickers to tech-filled wake-up lights. For an entire month, we set alarms, allow them to ring and snoozed (possibly a bit too typically) to search out one of the best of one of the best. In spite of everything our checks, 5 alarm clocks rose above the others.

Finest alarm clock general

The Jall Picket Digital Alarm Clock appears to be like nice and has the whole lot you want in an alarm clock. It is easy to set, learn and use, and might wake you dependably with a number of alarms.

A runner-up with a extremely seen display screen

A simple-to-use alarm clock with none bells and whistles to get in the best way, the DreamSky is easy, sturdy and extremely readable, and can get you off the bed within the morning with a loud beep that is not too startling.

A luxurious clock with one of the best non-sunrise alarm

Whereas $149 is quite a bit to pay for an alarm clock, the Loftie is nicely well worth the cash, because of its easy design, easy-to-navigate interface, soundscapes that lull you to sleep and a gradual two-tone alarm. It’s a considerate product that makes the sleep expertise really feel like self-care.

Finest dawn alarm clock (and finest with radio)

Capable of wake you gently with lights that regularly brighten to imitate the daybreak, the Philips Wake-Up Mild HF3520 is a superb dawn alarm clock and probably the greatest all-around alarm clocks we examined, with intuitive programming, a variety of alarm tones and a radio.

The Jall Picket Digital Alarm Clock has the whole lot you want — and extra — in an alarm clock. It’s easy to set, straightforward to learn at the hours of darkness and has an alarm that’s loud however gained’t scare you awake. It’s obtained a sophisticated really feel to it, and its picket design provides it a glance in contrast to another clocks we examined. Plus, at $25 (or much less), the Jall Picket Alarm Clock is supplied with extremely helpful options, equivalent to the power to set a number of alarms, humidity and temperature readings and a function that places the show to sleep and routinely wakes it again up if it senses motion or sound.

Proper out of the field, this clock was straightforward to make use of and setup was a breeze. It’s obtained a 5-foot wire that ought to attain most shops comfortably, and comes with a CR2032 battery that backs up your settings (though the small plastic latch that opens the battery door snapped off once we pulled too onerous, so watch out when it is advisable change the battery). The Jall clock has a panel on the bottom that homes all of the controls, together with three small buttons, 4 switches and a scrolling wheel. To set the time or alarm, all it’s a must to do is press and maintain a button and use the wheel to vary the numbers on the display screen. Setting the time and alarm took us lower than a minute once we first plugged it in, which was refreshingly brief in comparison with different clocks. The scroll wheel was particularly helpful, permitting you to hurry by the numbers for hours and minutes as a substitute of repeatedly urgent a button.

Everytime you set or change your alarm, you will have the choice to set two different alarms as nicely, so you may have three completely different alarms energetic without delay. You can too select in order for you the alarms to go off day by day or on weekdays solely, which was one other nice function that was absent from lots of the Jall’s opponents.

Talking of additional options, this clock can present you the humidity and temperature of your room, which are literally important components to getting restful sleep. You’ll be able to toggle the dimmable show between displaying temperature or the date in addition to a “Sound Management” mode, which turns off the show and routinely turns it again on when motion or sound is detected.

Whereas there are many enjoyable and useful options of the Jall, one of the crucial putting elements is its design. We examined the “yellow” clock, which appears to be like like a pleasant pine. However it additionally is available in three different finishes (black, brown and white), all of which have a clear, nearly Japandi look. When the clock isn’t plugged in or the show is off, it appears to be like like a stable picket block. However when switched on, the time seems in a delicate white gentle behind the wooden. We will think about one among its colours matching with almost any inside decor.

The Jall Picket Digital Alarm Clock appears to be like good, however we didn’t title it one of the best alarm clock simply due to its appears to be like. At first, the Jall is a stable alarm clock that may comfortably wake you up. It has a tone that isn’t so loud that it makes you leap off the bed, however it additionally isn’t so quiet that you simply’ll sleep proper by it. The alarm can also be adjustable, with 5 completely different quantity settings, so you may fine-tune the beeps to make sure you roll off the bed each time. And if you wish to roll again into mattress, you may set the snooze timer for 9 minutes by urgent any of the buttons on the again. To show the alarm absolutely off, press any button twice.

It didn’t have one of the best wake-up expertise of all of the clocks we examined (that title belongs to the dawn clocks we’ll contact on later), nor did it have a really jarring alarm that scared us awake (we’ll discuss extra about these too). As a substitute, it was a fairly normal alarm that woke us up with out incident, and was straightforward to show off even with eyes half open. In case you’re the clumsy kind (or semiconscious from simply waking up) and by chance knock it off the bedside desk, there’s no want to fret, as a result of it made it by our drop check and not using a scratch, because of its sturdy and light-weight construct.

The Jall Picket Digital Alarm Clock rightfully earned its place on the high of our record. Its performance, simplicity and design actually shined.

Kai Burkhardt/CNN

The DreamSky Compact Digital Alarm Clock isn’t fairly as full-featured because the Jall Picket Clock, however it checks all of the packing containers of an excellent alarm clock, and people in want of an alarm clock with none additional bells or whistles will probably be very happy. Small however with an enormous show, for $19.99 you get an easy-to-use clock with an adjustable wake-up tone. It’s a stable decide to get you off the bed within the morning.

This clock doesn’t have the extra options the Jall does, as a substitute touting only one alarm and an additional USB port. The DreamSky clock had a easy setup, and with 4 buttons and two wheels on the again, together with a nap button on high, it isn’t too tough to make use of. Simply plug within the clock with its 5-foot, 2-inch wire, pop in two AAA batteries as a backup and set the time. To do that, you press and maintain a button to enter the settings mode, then press the plus (“+”) and minus (“-“) buttons to vary the time. Whereas you can be mashing some buttons, your fingers gained’t get fatigued since you may toggle between the hour and the minutes and go up and down.

The alarm itself is just like the Jall’s, offering a pleasant and loud beep that isn’t too startling. The beeps enhance in pace and quantity the longer the alarm goes, and you’ll modify the quantity so that you by no means by chance sleep by till midday. The snooze button isn’t actually a button however reasonably a sensor on the highest of the clock that may enable you one other 9 minutes of zzz’s till it beeps once more.

The DreamSky scored extraordinarily nicely in almost all of our checks, together with sturdiness, look and wake-up expertise, however what made it one of many high contenders was its large and vibrant show. The numbers occupy principally your complete show of the DreamSky as a substitute of simply being in a small window like another clocks we examined. It’s straightforward to inform what time it’s with the DreamSky, even when it’s the nighttime and also you’re as blind as a bat. This huge display screen simply made it one of the crucial readable clocks, tied solely with the Magnasonic Projection Alarm Clock, which might challenge the time onto your ceiling. Whereas we cherished its ultra-visible show, the DreamSky has a dial on the again that permits you to fine-tune its brightness all the best way right down to a darkish display screen that gained’t trouble you at evening.

In case you’re searching for a stable alarm clock and don’t want the additional options of the Jall, the DreamSky Compact Digital Alarm Clock might be the one for you.

In case you’re merely searching for a clock to switch your cellphone, then you definately’ll be very happy with the Jall or the DreamSky. Nevertheless, in order for you a tool that eases you into your mornings with a gradual alarm and also can enable you get to sleep, the Loftie is the proper clock for you.

Waking as much as a gradual alarm is a complete sport changer. As a substitute of jolting awake, you’re slowly introduced out of slumber, which provides your physique time to regulate and truly get up. Usually, these calming alarms are reserved for dawn alarm clocks (like our winner, the Philips Wake-Up Mild HF3520); nonetheless, the Loftie was the one non-sunrise clock we examined that had this important function.

Loftie’s alarm is so good, we truly loved it greater than the alarms on the dawn clocks. Whereas the dawn clocks we examined play the comfortable sounds of a river or birds chirping and slowly enhance the quantity, Loftie makes use of a two-tone system. The primary tone is a quiet and ambient noise that begins to elevate you out of sleep. It then routinely snoozes itself for 30 seconds and waits 9 minutes till it performs a louder tone to get you up off the bed. The second tone isn’t sudden or shocking, however it’s faster-paced and louder than the primary alarm. Nevertheless, the Loftie alarm doesn’t have any kind of dawn gentle, so whereas the auditory alarm is nice, if you wish to mimic the dawn you must go for the Philips Wake-Up.

One downside we’ve with all alarm clocks is that irrespective of how calming the tone could also be on the primary morning, after a few week it turns into annoying and you find yourself getting off the bed grumpy anyway. Nevertheless, the Loftie has tons of choices for each its preliminary “wake-up sound” and its secondary “get-up sound,” with common updates that add much more tones.

In addition to its wonderful alarm system, the Loftie has a minimalist design that appears nice on any countertop, a chic and ambient evening gentle that emanates from the underside of the clock, a vibrant display screen and a easy interface. Setting a number of alarms was a breeze, and after connecting the clock to an app, the Loftie pulled the precise time from the web, that means we didn’t need to set it manually.

On high of probably the greatest wake-up experiences we examined, the Loftie may help you go to sleep too. It’s obtained a big library of meditations, soundscapes, white noises and even bedtime tales and sound baths to select from, with common updates including much more content material. And in case you aren’t a fan of any of these choices, you may hook it as much as your cellphone and use it as a Bluetooth speaker so you may go to sleep to your favourite podcast.

In addition to the value, the largest draw back of the Loftie for us is its show. Whereas its brightness is adjustable, the numbers are a bit too small to simply see in case you’re nearsighted and don’t have your glasses on.

In case you’re prepared to spend $149 on an alarm clock (or $99 on a refurbished one), the Loftie ought to be your first decide. It’s obtained one of the best wake-up expertise of any non-sunrise alarm clock we’ve examined, a chic evening gentle and a wide selection of sounds that can assist you go to sleep. Plus, its easy design means it can look good wherever you place it in your bed room. So, in case you’re prepared for an upgraded alarm clock however don’t desire a dawn clock, Loftie is the one for you.

$99.95 $79.95 at Amazon and Walmart

If you’d like a extra soothing and gradual wake-up expertise than the usual beep of an alarm clock, the Philips Wake-Up Mild HF3520 is the alarm clock for you. Its bulbous show slowly brightens to imitate the morning solar after which performs mild noises, equivalent to chirping birds, to ease you awake. This dawn alarm clock gave us one of the crucial nice mornings out of all of the clocks we examined, and at $79.95 (cheaper than different dawn choices we examined), it’s an excellent stability between luxurious and worth.

If a traditional alarm clock simply doesn’t do it for you and any beep is just too harsh, then a dawn alarm clock is likely to be the factor you want. Dawn alarm clocks may help jump-start your circadian system within the morning and might assist enhance sleep high quality. Actually, 92% of Philips Wake-Up Mild customers say the lights wake them up pleasantly and make it simpler to get off the bed.

To see if we felt a distinction and to learn the way dawn clocks in comparison with extra conventional choices, we examined 5 of them, together with three of Philips’ famed Wake-Up Lights. After our testing, we discovered that one of the best dawn alarm clock — and probably the greatest all-around alarm clocks — was the Philips Wake-Up Mild HF3520.

To be clear, the title for finest dawn alarm clock was extraordinarily shut between the Philips Wake-Up Mild HF3520 and its dearer sibling, the Philips SmartSleep Linked Sleep and Wake-Up Mild. The SmartSleep Linked Mild was a unbelievable alarm clock and nearly took the crown. It has all of the options of our winner and extra, however throughout our drop checks, the port the place you plug within the energy wire broke, making it unusable. Although it scored increased and affords extra advantages than the cheaper Philips gentle, the truth that it broke, to not point out its lofty $199.95 worth, make us imagine the Philips Wake-Up Mild HF3520 is the smarter and higher funding.

So let’s get into why this Philips Wake-Up Mild actually is so nice. At first, the wake-up expertise was second to none. We dwell in an condo fortunate sufficient to get some morning gentle, so though it most likely didn’t influence us as a lot as somebody who has blackout curtains, the sunshine nonetheless eased us into the morning, and the nice pure noises have been a delicate alarm that was a a lot better expertise than the opposite clocks we examined.

The pure sounds have been really our favourite a part of this clock, with tones together with waves, chirping birds and a chilled piano that enhance in quantity as you get up. There are 5 choices to select from, so you may decide your favourite, or you may even tune the clock to the radio in case you favor.

In addition to the excellent morning routine, the Philips Wake-Up Mild has tons of options that many different clocks didn’t have, equivalent to radio and wake-up profiles that can help you select a unique expertise for weekdays and weekends. Plus, you should use the sunshine as an ordinary lamp whilst you’re winding down or studying in the course of the night.

The setup was additionally extraordinarily straightforward, because of the small display screen on the backside of the sunshine that has little contact sensors so you may rapidly navigate by the menu and alter the time and alarm settings. Programming the alarm was easy and intuitive, though it’s a must to decide a number of settings, together with your time, brightness, sound and quantity.

One facet of the Philips Wake-Up Mild that knocked it down a number of factors, although, is its sheer measurement. The face and light-weight itself is about 9 inches in diameter, and the bottom is sort of large at about 4.5 inches, so that you’ll need to filter a little bit of house to place it subsequent to your mattress. And also you’ll wish to make sure that it’s near your mattress, as Philips suggests putting the sunshine 16 to twenty inches out of your head.

Since it’s such an enormous alarm clock, it’s additionally obtained some weight to it, which made the drop check additional scary. Smaller clocks, such because the Jall and DreamSky, can most likely fall off a bedside desk dozens of occasions earlier than something occurs to them, simply because they’re so gentle and the influence is minimal. The Philips, alternatively, weighs in at about 2.5 kilos, so the drops had numerous power behind them, so we may see it breaking after a number of extra falls.

The Philips Wake-Up Mild HF3520 is sort of an funding for an alarm clock at $79.95, however for the value, you’re getting one of the best wake-up expertise in the marketplace that may make your mornings brighter and happier.

We’re not going to lie: We have been scared of the Sonic Bomb Twin Additional-Loud Alarm Clock. Meant for heavy sleepers who aren’t woke up by common alarm clocks, not solely is the Sonic Bomb’s alarm tone extremely loud and unsightly — it’s one of the crucial abrasive we examined — however the gadget drives the purpose dwelling with a set of flashing pink strobes, and it augments this sensory assault with a “mattress shaker,” a vibrating puck that you simply place below your pillow. Once we examined the alarm for the primary time on a desk, we have been shocked to see how violent the buzzing mattress shaker truly was. And the producer underscores the clock’s seriousness by providing it in a variety of intense designs, together with a camo model and one adorned with skulls along with a extra typical palette of sedate and vibrant colours.

However after weeks of laying aside testing, we lastly put the Sonic Bomb on our nightstand and wakened with it — and, in actuality, the expertise wasn’t as unhealthy as we had feared. Plus, the extra options — particularly the mattress shaker — ought to awaken those that haven’t been capable of finding an alarm clock that does the job.

Common sleepers ought to know that the beeps don’t begin on full blast, and if these handle to awaken you, you will have a second to brace your self earlier than the vibrations begin. And the strobes aren’t unreasonably vibrant — not sufficient to wake you on their very own, although vibrant sufficient to behave as an added incentive. The alarm does enhance in quantity and pace, and we don’t know what sort of particular person may sleep by that mattress shaker in the event that they put it beneath their pillow. And you’ll set how lengthy the alarm goes on, from one minute to 59 minutes, so if you actually need to you can also make it final a protracted, very long time to actually be sure to rise up. A battery backup retains the racket getting in case of an outage.

So if in case you have a nasty behavior of sleeping by a number of alarms and simply can’t rely on a traditional, on a regular basis alarm clock to awaken you, the Sonic Bomb Twin Additional-Loud Alarm Clock ought to be sufficient to wake you up. A few caveats: The consumer interface format is clunky in comparison with the opposite clocks we examined, so setting the time and the alarm is harder than we’d like. The mattress shaker isn’t wi-fi (it’s hooked up with a skinny wire), so that you’ll have to put it so it doesn’t get tangled in case you toss and switch in your sleep. Additionally, the Sonic Bomb is among the few alarms that broke throughout our drop checks, so in case your response to an alarm going off entails throwing it throughout the room, you might wish to look elsewhere.

We researched and located top-rated alarm clocks and chosen a wide-ranging pool that included 18 digital, analog and dawn alarm clocks. We opened every alarm clock and set the time and alarm, enjoying with all of the settings and testing out any and all additional options. We listened to the alarms in the course of the day, and woke as much as every one to get a real wake-up expertise. Over the period of 1 month, listed below are all of the checks we ran:

Efficiency

  • Readability: We took notice of how seen and legible the numbers or analog arms on the clock have been, each in gentle and at the hours of darkness.
  • Ease of setting alarm: We famous how tough it was to set the alarm on every clock, and the way a lot time it took.
  • Wake-up expertise: We examined the alarm and famous the quantity, tone, harshness and normal expertise of waking as much as the alarm.
  • Dimmability: We examined how dimmable every clock was, testing every one within the gentle and the darkish.
  • Snooze: We examined how straightforward it was to snooze the alarm, and took notice if it was customizable and simple to set.
  • Energy: We famous if the clock wanted batteries, an influence wire or each. If it wanted an influence wire, we measured the wire.

Construct

  • Supplies: We felt every alarm clock and judged how good or low-cost it felt, together with buttons and dials.
  • Sturdiness: We knocked every alarm clock off the identical bedside desk 5 occasions, noting any harm after every drop.
  • Look: We famous its measurement and coloration choices, and rated its aesthetics.

X components

  • Additional options: We famous and examined any and all additional options and the way helpful they have been.

Philips SmartSleep Linked Sleep and Wake-Up Mild

Like we stated earlier, the Philips SmartSleep Linked Sleep and Wake-Up Mild is an excellent alarm clock. The wake-up expertise is simply pretty much as good as our winner for one of the best dawn alarm clock — and this gentle comes with extra options, equivalent to a customizable snooze, extra alarms you may set, leisure workout routines and extra. Plus, for the reason that SmartSleep is a brilliant alarm clock, you may management it from an app with none fussing with buttons.

Nevertheless, on the final drop of our sturdiness check, the clock sadly broke. We don’t count on folks to be dropping their alarm clocks that usually, however accidents do occur, and in case you pay a lot for one thing, you need it to final. Even when it didn’t break, the additional $100 you’d need to pay over the Philips Wake-Up Mild HF3520 is quite a bit, and in comparison with different clocks we examined, which have worth tags round $20, it was simply too excessive to justify. However if in case you have the additional cash and wish to purchase a dawn clock that helps you not solely get up simply however fall asleep quicker and assist your total sleep expertise, the Philips SmartSleep Linked Wake-Up Mild is an incredible gadget to have in your house.

The Hatch Restore is a superb dawn alarm clock that offers a delicate and gradual wake-up very like our favourite dawn alarm, the Philips Wake-Up Mild. Nevertheless, the Restore’s gentle is smaller, which gave a much less immersive feeling than the Philips Wake-Up. Whereas the Hatch couldn’t beat out the Philips Wake-Up Mild in our testing, it actually shines as a white noise machine. Actually, it was our improve decide for one of the best white noise machine of 2022.

The Loftie, our luxurious decide, is a greater alarm clock general, because of its wonderful wake-up expertise, and whereas it additionally has loads of meditations and soundscapes to go to sleep to, these packages fall wanting the Hatch’s automated wind-down routine that pairs completely different modes of lighting with sounds that can assist you prepare for mattress. You’ll be able to program the Hatch to shine a vibrant white gentle for half-hour so you may learn, then it may transition to a darker blue hue whereas queuing up a meditation, then decrease the quantity and play rain sounds by the evening. In brief, the Loftie is best at waking you up, and the Hatch is best at serving to you get to mattress within the first place.

The one disadvantage to utilizing Hatch as a white noise machine is that whereas you may get entry to a small portion of Hatch’s library of soundscapes and meditations without cost, in order for you full entry you’ll need to pay for a subscription that prices $99 per 12 months. However in order for you an all-in-one gadget that actually helps you go to sleep and does job of waking you up, the Hatch Restore is second to none.

The Magnasonic alarm clock was a nifty and all-around stable clock that we completely loved testing. It comes with a radio which you can take heed to or use as your alarm, an aux wire and a projector that shows the time in your ceiling. Whereas the pink digits on the ceiling form of seemed like a doomsday clock at first, it’s truly an especially helpful function in case you are likely to rise up in the course of the evening and wish to know the time. In case you like the thought of the projector, undoubtedly contemplate the Magnasonic alarm clock, because it scored fairly nicely in most of our different checks as nicely, simply inferior to our winners.

This smaller dawn clock from Philips was good, however its larger counterparts actually outdid this $49.99 possibility. This clock doesn’t have the pure sounds, and it’s so gentle and tall that it may simply be knocked over, particularly since it’s a must to faucet the highest to snooze it. The beeps of the alarm aren’t too harsh, and the alarm-setting course of wasn’t horrible, so in order for you a dawn clock however don’t wish to spend a ton of cash, this might be an excellent purchase.

Whereas this itty-bitty alarm clock didn’t rating very excessive, we predict it’s truly a unbelievable alarm clock in case you journey quite a bit. It’s so small it may slot in your pocket, plus it unfolds, so you may put it on principally any floor subsequent to your mattress. It’s battery-powered, so you may take it anyplace, and it has an ordinary alarm that’s straightforward to set. There’s nothing fancy about this clock, however in case you want simply the naked bones to take with you once you’re touring or tenting, the Travelwey Digital Journey Alarm Clock is a superb moveable possibility.

The Homelabs Dawn Alarm Clock actually couldn’t examine with the choices from Philips. The numbers on the clock itself have been fuzzy and onerous to learn, and whereas it’s geared up with pure sounds to get up to, the audio high quality is so unhealthy that it sounds prefer it’s coming by a tin can. We’d suggest you spend the additional cash for one of many nicer choices from Philips.

This alarm clock from Sony scored decently nicely, however none of its options stood out above the pack. It’s obtained a radio, which is a pleasant function, and the design is easy, however the show was onerous to see at the hours of darkness. Plus, each time you hit the snooze button, the time of the snooze will increase, which appears counterintuitive.

This Travelwey alarm clock reminded us of a traditional childhood alarm clock, with the brilliant pink numbers and big snooze button on the high. The snooze button can perform as a lightweight, which is a pleasant function different digital clocks didn’t have, however setting the time and alarm was a sluggish and unforgiving expertise. It’s important to maintain one button and press one other to set the time, and you’ll solely enhance the digits. So in case you miss your time by one minute, it’s a must to circle across the full 24-hour cycle to get again to your required time.

Peakeep’s small clock scored the very best out of the analog clocks, which scored decrease usually as a result of their lack of visibility at the hours of darkness and different options. This clock is the one analog possibility we examined to have a nap button, and it was straightforward to set the alarm (although not a precise science, because you’re transferring an analog hand as a substitute of coming into a digit). It has a lightweight, however like different analog choices, it’s solely on once you maintain it.

This huge-screened alarm clock is just like our runner-up, the DreamSky Compact Digital Alarm Clock. The PPLEE has an ordinary beeping alarm and numbers that aren’t fairly as straightforward to see because the DreamSky’s, so in case you’re searching for a easy alarm clock like this we predict you’ll be higher served by our runner-up.

The RCA alarm clock had one of many harshest alarm tones we examined. It rattled the plastic contained in the clock and had a screeching sound that had us leaping off the bed to finish our ears’ struggling as quickly as we may. It wasn’t extremely straightforward to set the alarm, and even in case you want an extra-loud alarm to wake you up, we wouldn’t suggest this one. If you’re an especially deep sleeper, take a look at the Sonic Bomb.

The analog clock from Jall was fairly a pleasant contender; nonetheless, since analog clocks had a number of key options absent, it didn’t rating nicely general. The Jall appears to be like cute, is available in 5 completely different colours and, most significantly, doesn’t tick, making it a stable analog alarm clock in order for you one thing a bit heftier than the tiny Peakeep clock.

The Peakeep Twin Bell Alarm Clock had an alarm so loud and stunning that it frightened us up off the bed from the opposite room. We put it exterior the bed room within the first place as a result of the second hand ticked. And though we dwell in New York Metropolis and we hear automobiles drive by our condo fairly often, we couldn’t stand the sound of a ticking clock. There wasn’t a lot good from this clock that would outweigh the ticking and the alarm, so in order for you an analog clock, we’d suggest the Jall or the smaller Peakeep.


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